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Steel Production in USSR

In this country, ferrous metallurgy was flourishing in the second half of the 18th century when the country held first place in the world in the production of ferrous metals Russian roof iron was regarded the best in the world and exported to many countries. The first half of the 19th century was marked by the work of P. P. Anosov who made remarkable discoveries when studying steel properties and was in fact the first metallurgist to succeed in preparing Damask steel and describing the process of its preparation.

In 1913, before the First World War, Rusia took fifth place in the world in the manufacture of steel, with 4.3 million tonn of steel being produced annually. Owing to the economic devastation brought by the Civil War, the sted output in Russia dropped down to less than 200 thous. t. In the period of reconstruction of the national economy and upon fulfilling the first five-year plans, the steel output was raised four times against the pre-revolution figure of 1913, which became possible due to the construction of a number of large integrated works in Magnitogorsk, Kuzmnetsk, Nizhny Tagil, etc. and radical reconstruction of some older works.

During the war period (1941-45), the level of ferrous metals production in this country decreased to the level of 1913. Soon after the war, upon the fulfilment of the first post-war five-year plan, the steel output increased 1.5 times against the pre-war level. At the end of the fifth five-year plan (1955), more than 45 million tonnes of steel were produced in this country.

It should be noted that this substantial gain in steel production after the war NCIER was mainly achieved by increasing the output capacities of the existing works, increased capacity, and by improved production technology and organization, rather a furnace capacity iron and steelworks. For instance, the steel output at the than by building new then the fifth five-year plan period almost by Kuznetsk integrated works went up during one third, without any new furnaces being put into operation. The yield of steel per m² of the hearth rose on average from 3.75 t in 1945 to 6.96 t in 1957. In 1967. ferrous metallurgy in the USSR reached a new horizon in steel production and exceeded 100 million tonnes. Thus, the metallurgists of the country managed to double the production of steel in ten years, from 1957 to 1967. In 1971, the USSR took first place in steel production.

The successes in steel production and the improvement of steel quality in the post-war years are largely due to the extensive research work carried out under the guidance of leading Soviet metallurgists such as 1. P. Bardin, K. G. Trubin, A. M. Samarin, V. I. Yavoisky and others in the theory of melting and casting of steel, application of oxygen, continuous steel casting, etc.

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